Baggett v. Bullitt (1964) struck down a state law that mandated loyalty
oaths for state employees, thereby interfering with their First Amendment
rights of association.
Loyalty Oaths Archives
Beilan v. Board of Education (1958) glossed over First Amendment concerns
and upheld a teacher’s dismissal for refusing to answer questions about
membership in a communist group.
Communist Party of Indiana v. Whitcomb (1974) overturned a law requiring a
loyalty oath for party ballot access. The law violated the First Amendment
right of association.
Connell v. Higginbotham (1971) used the First Amendment to strike down a
loyalty oath that required teachers to affirm they did not believe in the
violent overthrow of government.
Cramp v. Board of Public Instruction of Orange County (1961) struck down a
state loyalty oath law for being vague and possibly infringing upon First
In June 1865, Missouri, whose citizens had been deeply split by the Civil War, adopted a constitution that barred from voting any individuals who were unwilling to take an oath that they had never aided the Confederacy or any of its participants or who had left the state to escape conscription. They also would
In Garner v. Board of Public Works of Los Angeles, the court upheld the
constitutionality of loyalty oaths examining subversive associations of
In Gibson v. Florida Legislative Investigation Committee, the court held
that the state must show compelling interest to intrude on First Amendment