Home » Featured » The origins of academic freedom in the U.S.

By Deborah Fisher, published on April 3, 2023

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Daryl Tempesta tapes a sign over his mouth in protest during a demonstration Thursday, April 27, 2017, in Berkeley, Calif. Demonstrators gathered near the University of California, Berkeley campus amid a strong police presence and rallied to show support for free speech and condemn the views of Ann Coulter and her supporters. (AP Photo/Marcio Jose Sanchez)

Read these Encyclopedia articles related to academic freedom:

Academic Freedom origin and overview: Academic freedom refers to the ability of teachers, students, and educational institutions to pursue knowledge without unreasonable political or government interference.

Academic Bill of Rights: The Academic Bill of Rights is a three-part document offering a definition of academic freedom and presenting a number of “rights” that students and faculty should have in scholarship and in the classroom to protect academic freedom and reduce ideological intimidation.

Rights of Teachers: In American jurisprudence, public school teachers, as public employees, do not forfeit all of their First Amendment rights to free expression when they accept employment.

Rights of Students:  Public school students enjoy First Amendment protection depending on the type of expression and their age.

American Association of University Professors: Among the events leading to the founding of the AAUP was the dismissal of sociologist E. A. Ross from Stanford University in 1901 based on his writings about the problems of immigrant laborers on the Southern Pacific Railroad.

Foundation for Individual Rights and Expression: FIRE is a Philadelphia-based nonprofit organization that defends free expression rights in the United States, with a special focus on college students and faculty.


More than 1,700 articles on First Amendment topics, court cases and history